Blockchain Technology

What is Blockchain Technology? What does Blockchain do?

In recent years, the term “blockchain technology” has become increasingly common, often linked to cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin


It’s almost as if blockchain has become a buzzword, thrown around in a way that’s hard to grasp for the average person. This involves unravelling the technology it employs, comprehending its functioning, and recognizing its promising significance in our digital landscape.


If you’re stepping into the world of blockchain with little prior knowledge, you’ve arrived at the perfect platform to establish a robust foundational understanding. In the upcoming sections, we’ll break down the difficulties of answering the very question: “What is blockchain technology?”


Table of contents

Understanding Blockchain Technology

At its core, blockchain is a safeguarding mechanism that ensures information remains impervious to alteration, hacking, or manipulation. Picture it as a digital fortress that maintains the integrity of data. But what exactly is this blockchain concept, and why is it garnering such attention?


Imagine a distributed ledger called a blockchain. This ledger isn’t confined to a single location; it’s replicated and dispersed across a network of interconnected computers. This web of computers collaborates, ensuring that transactions are validated and shared.


Think of blockchain technology as a complex structure. Within this structure, transactional records often referred to as “blocks” are stored. These blocks are the building blocks of transparency. They’re anchored in a series of databases, forming a chain of interlinked information.


Imagine these interconnected databases as nodes on a network, like members of a closely-knit digital community. This network, fueled by peer-to-peer connections, forms what we call a “digital ledger.”


Every transaction recorded in this ledger isn’t just a digital scribble; it bears the digital signature of its rightful owner. This signature is the key to authenticity, acting as a virtual seal of approval that guards against any tampering.


What does Blockchain do and how does it work?

Blockchain working

Blockchain is like a digital ledger that helps keep track of transactions and data in a secure and transparent way. Imagine it as a chain of digital blocks, where each block stores information, and they are all linked together. What makes blockchain special is that once data is recorded in a block, it’s really hard to change or delete it.


Let’s decode, how blockchain operates


  • It all begins with a transaction that needs to be carried out. This sets the stage for creating a special block to represent the transaction.
  • This newly minted block is then shared with every node in the network, ensuring everyone has access to the transaction details.
  • Nodes in the network play a crucial role by verifying the transaction’s legitimacy. As a reward for their efforts in this verification process (known as proof of work), they receive compensation.
  • Once the transaction is validated and nodes are rewarded, the block is securely added to the existing blockchain.
  • With the block firmly in place within the blockchain, the transaction is officially completed and considered successful.

Types of Blockchain

Types of blockchain
  1. Private Blockchain Networks: Private blockchains operate within closed circles, making them suitable for businesses and organizations. These networks offer customization options, allowing companies to control accessibility, authorization, and security settings. A single authority manages these private networks, ensuring a controlled environment.
  2. Public Blockchain Networks: Originating with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, public blockchains democratize distributed ledger technology (DLT). Data is distributed across a peer-to-peer network, reducing security risks and centralization concerns. Verification relies on consensus algorithms, with proof of stake (PoS) and proof of work (PoW) as common methods.
  3. Permissioned Blockchain Networks: Also known as hybrid blockchains, permissioned networks combine public and private features. Authorized individuals gain access to these private blockchains. Organizations adopt this model to balance participation and transaction control, creating a more structured network.
  4. Consortium Blockchains: Consortium blockchains blend public and private elements, but multiple organizations manage them. Initial complexity leads to enhanced security and collaborative capabilities. Ideal for multi-organization projects, consortium blockchains enable efficient cooperation.
  5. Hybrid Blockchains: Hybrid blockchains merge public and private aspects, offering transparency and controlled access. Some parts are public and open, while others are restricted to authorized participants. This balance is ideal for scenarios like supply chain management, where certain data requires privacy.
  6. Sidechains: Parallel to the main blockchain, sidechains expand functionality and scalability. Developers experiment without affecting the primary blockchain’s integrity. Sidechains host decentralized applications and specific consensus mechanisms, addressing congestion and boosting scalability.
  7. Blockchain Layers: Blockchain layers involve stacking multiple blockchains on top of each other. Each layer has distinct rules, consensus methods, and functions interacting with others. This design boosts scalability, allowing parallel transaction processing. 


For instance, the Lightning Network, a second layer on top of Bitcoin, accelerates transactions via user-initiated payment channels.


Exploring these blockchain types illuminates the diverse ways this technology shapes industries and interactions, propelling us into an era of digital transformation.

Breaking Down Blockchain Technology


In recent times, you’ve probably noticed numerous businesses worldwide adopting Blockchain technology. But what’s the inner workings of Blockchain all about? Is it a mere addition, or a groundbreaking transformation? The potential of Blockchain is still unfolding, with the promise to revolutionize our future.


The Fusion of Three Key Elements

Blockchain comprises a trio of crucial technologies


  • Cryptographic Keys
  • Peer-to-Peer Network with a Shared Ledger
  • Computing Power for Storing Network Transactions


Imagine cryptographic keys like your secret codes, a Private Key and a Public Key. They’re the backbone of secure transactions between parties. Each person possesses these keys, crafting a shielded digital identity reference. 


This secure identity is the cornerstone of Blockchain. In the realm of cryptocurrencies, this identity takes the form of a ‘digital signature, essential for validating and managing transactions.


The Role of the Peer-to-Peer Network is very crucial. This network unites countless individuals who function as digital authorities. They deploy these digital signatures to strike a consensus on transactions and other matters.


As they greenlight a transaction, a meticulous mathematical verification kicks in. This process culminates in a secure, verified transaction between the two connected parties on the network.


In essence, Blockchain users employ cryptographic keys for an array of digital interactions across the peer-to-peer network. These interactions are the building blocks of secure transactions that promise transparency, trust, and potentially transformative impact.

What Makes Blockchain So Popular?

Imagine you’re sending money to your family or friends through your bank account. You log into online banking, input their account number, and complete the transfer. Your bank updates the transaction records. Sounds straightforward, right? However, there’s a potential issue that often goes unnoticed.


These transactions can be easily tampered with. Those aware of this vulnerability are cautious about using such transactions, leading to the rise of third-party payment apps. This concern is precisely why Blockchain technology was developed.


Blockchain is a digital ledger that has been gaining significant attention recently. But what’s behind its popularity? 


In the business world, keeping records of data and transactions is crucial. Typically, this involves in-house management or reliance on third parties like brokers, bankers, or lawyers. This can consume time and money. Fortunately, Blockchain bypasses this lengthy process, enabling faster transactions and cost savings.


Contrary to common belief, Blockchain and Bitcoin aren’t interchangeable. While Blockchain supports various applications across industries like finance, supply chain, and manufacturing, Bitcoin is a currency relying on Blockchain for security.


How Transactions Work in Blockchain

A standout trait of Blockchain technology is how it manages and validates transactions. Let’s dive into this process with a clear example: Imagine two folks aiming to conduct a transaction. One uses a private key, while the other uses a public key.


  • Assembling the Block: The first person links transaction details to the second person’s public key. These details are bundled together into a block.


  • Vital Block Components: Inside the block, you’ll find essential components like a digital signature, a timestamp, and other pertinent info. Notably, identities aren’t included in this block, it’s about the transaction, not who’s involved.


  • Network Transmission: This block is shared across all network nodes. When the right person matches their private key with the block, the transaction is successfully confirmed.


Beyond financial transactions, Blockchain can also securely store property, vehicle, and other transactional data.

Understanding Through a Use Case

Hash Encryption

Blockchain relies on hashing and encryption for data security. The SHA256 algorithm plays a pivotal role here. It takes the sender’s address (public key), the recipient’s address, the transaction info, and private key data. This data undergoes the SHA256 algorithm, creating encrypted information known as hash encryption.


This secure encryption is transmitted globally and is added to the blockchain after verification. The strength of SHA256 makes hacking these hash encryptions almost impossible, simplifying sender and recipient authentication.

Proof of Work Explained

In each blockchain block, you’ll find four main headers


  • Previous Hash: This points to the previous block’s address.


  • Transaction Details: This holds all transaction information.


  • Nonce: A cryptographic number distinguishing the block.


  • Block’s Hash Address: The preceding hash, transaction data, and nonce are fed into a hashing algorithm. The output is a unique 256-bit, 64-character “hash address.”


Miners across the globe attempt to crack the right hash value based on predetermined criteria, using computational algorithms. When they hit the criteria, the transaction is verified. 


Essentially, Blockchain miners solve a maths puzzle called a “proof of work” problem. The first to solve it wins a reward.


This insight into the transaction process unveils the mechanics of Blockchain technology, steering us toward a future of secure, transparent interactions.

Blockchain Transaction Procedure

What is Blockchain Mining?

In the domain of Blockchain technology, “Mining” isn’t just about digging in the ground, it’s about adding transactional info to the current digital ledger. While often linked with Bitcoin, the term extends to various other Blockchain setups. So, what’s this process all about?

The Mining Process Explained

Think of mining as crafting a unique, unbreakable seal for each transaction block. This seal, known as a “hash,” guarantees the security of the entire Blockchain without relying on a central authority.

Why Mining Matters

By generating these unforgeable hashes, miners ensure that each transaction is genuine and can’t be tampered with. This strengthens the trust and integrity of the Blockchain network, all without needing a central control.


So, in the world of Blockchain, mining isn’t about shovels and dirt, it’s about safeguarding transactions with digital locks to keep things transparent and secure.

Exploring the Pros and Cons of Blockchain Technology

When it comes to blockchain technology, there are both positives and negatives that deserve careful consideration due to their potential impact.

Advantages of Blockchain

Following are the notable advantages of blockchain.


  • Enhanced Security: One of the most prominent benefits of blockchain lies in its exceptional security features. It acts as a fortified digital fortress, ensuring the safeguarding of sensitive data during online transactions. This security aspect is particularly appealing for maintaining the integrity of crucial information.


  • Swift and Convenient Transactions: Blockchain technology offers the advantage of speed and convenience. Transactions are processed efficiently, taking only a matter of minutes. This stands in stark contrast to traditional transaction methods that can drag on for days before completion.


  • Minimal Third-Party Interference: Many users appreciate the absence of meddling from financial institutions or governmental bodies. This independence from third-party interference is seen as a significant boon, allowing for more direct peer-to-peer interactions.

Disadvantages of Blockchain

Some significant disadvantages of blockchain can be outlined below.


  • Private Key Predicaments: Blockchain employs cryptography, necessitating the use of both public and private keys. Unfortunately, issues with private keys have surfaced. If a user misplaces their private key, they can encounter a plethora of challenges. This vulnerability is a clear drawback of blockchain technology.


  • Scalability Limitations: The scalability of blockchain poses a challenge. Each node has a cap on the number of transactions it can handle. Consequently, multiple transactions or tasks might take hours to conclude, hampering overall efficiency.


  • Immutable Information: Once data is recorded on a blockchain, altering or appending it becomes vigorous. This immutability, while a security feature, can be a significant downside when updates or changes are necessary.


In weighing the advantages and disadvantages of blockchain technology, it becomes evident that its heightened security measures and expedited transactions are major assets. However, issues related to private keys, scalability, and the rigid nature of recorded information must also be taken into account.


In conclusion, the ever-evolving landscape of blockchain technology has redefined the meaning of trust and transparency in our digital age. As blockchain developers continue to push the boundaries of innovation, we can anticipate a future filled with an array of blockchain applications that will revolutionize various industries. 


From secure financial transactions to decentralized governance, blockchain’s potential knows no bounds.